Suh M, Movva N, Jiang X, Bylsma LC, Reichert H, Fryzek JP, Nelson CB. 2022. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of United States infant hospitalizations 2009–2019: A study of the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. J Infect Dis 226(Suppl 2):S154–S163.
Background. This study describes leading causes of hospitalization, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in United States infants (<1 year) from 2009 through 2019.
Methods. Within the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) data, hospitalizations were determined by primary diagnosis using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth or Tenth Revision codes. RSV was defined as 079.6, 466.11, 480.1, B97.4, J12.1, J20.5, or J21.0. Bronchiolitis was defined as 466.19, J21.8, or J21.9. Leading causes overall and by sociodemographic variables were identified. The Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) was used for confirmatory analyses.
Results. Acute bronchiolitis due to RSV (code 466.11 or J21.0) was the leading primary diagnosis, accounting for 9.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.4%–9.9%) and 9.3% (95% CI, 9.0%–9.6%) of total infant hospitalizations from January 2009 through September 2015 and October 2015 through December 2019, respectively; it was the leading primary diagnosis in every year ac-counting for >10% of total infant hospitalizations from December through March, reaching >15% in January–February. From 2009 through 2011, acute bronchiolitis due to RSV was the leading primary diagnosis in every birth month. Acute bronchiolitis due to RSV was the leading cause among all races/ethnicities, except Asian/Pacific Islanders, and all insurance payer groups. KID analyses confirmed these results.
Conclusions. Acute bronchiolitis due to RSV is the leading cause of US infant hospitalizations.