Publications : 2021

Röth A, Fryzek J, Jiang X, Reichert H, Patel P, Su J, Morales Arias J, Broome CM. 2021. Complement-mediated hemolysis persists year round in patients with cold agglutinin disease. Transfusion [online] 1–9; doi: 10.1111/trf.16745.



Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a rare autoimmune hemolytic anemia mediated by immunoglobulin M autoantibodies that bind to the “I” antigen on erythrocytes. IgM binding results in either agglutination at ≤37°C, activation of the classical complement pathway, or both. Patients with CAD can have transient agglutination-mediated circulatory symptoms triggered by exposure to cold conditions. Separately, patients with CAD can experience complement-mediated symptoms such as anemia, hemolysis, and fatigue, but the effect of the season on these complement-mediated manifestations of CAD and clinical outcomes is not well understood.


Using data from the Optum® de-identified Electronic Health Record dataset, we compared hemoglobin, markers of hemolysis (bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]), and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) between seasons for 594 patients (62% female; 66% aged ≥65 years) with CAD (defined as having CAD-related terms in their clinical notes on ≥3 separate occasions between December 2008 and May 2016). Laboratory parameters and HRU were compared between seasons using multivariate regression models. Results: Estimated median hemoglobin (9.87 g/dL in summer and 9.86 g/dL in winter; P = 0.944) and bilirubin (1.04 mg/dL in summer and 1.09 mg/dL in winter; P = 0.257) were similar in winter versus summer. While LDH was statistically significantly higher in winter compared with summer (P < 0.001), the estimated median value was above normal for both seasons (309 U/L in summer and 367 U/L in winter). HRU measures and transfusion and thromboembolism rates were similar across seasons.


Patients with CAD had evidence of persistent chronic hemolysis, HRU, and thromboembolism risk year round.