Ejerblad E, Fored CM, Lindblad P, Fryzek J, Dickman PW, Elinder CG, McLaughlin JK, Nyrén O. 2004. Association between smoking and chronic renal failure in a nationwide population-based case-control study. J Am Soc Nephrol 15(8):2178-2185.
For determining whether smoking is associated with an increased risk for chronic renal failure (CRF) overall and by type of renal disease, smoking data were analyzed from a nationwide population-based case-control study. Eligible as cases were native 18- to 74-yr-old Swedes whose serum creatinine for the first time and permanently exceeded 3.4 mg/dl (men) or 2.8 mg/dl (women). A total of 926 cases (78% of all eligible) and 998 control subjects (75% of 1330 randomly selected subjects from the source population), frequency matched to the cases by gender and age within 10 yr, were included. A face-to-face interview and a self-administered questionnaire provided information about smoking habits and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) as measures of relative risk for diseasespecific types of CRF among smokers compared with neversmokers. Despite a modest and nonsignificant overall association, the risk increased with high daily doses (OR among smokers of 20 cigarettes/d, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.15), long duration (OR among smokers for 40 yr, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.09), and a high cumulative dose (OR among smokers with 30 pack-years, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.14). Smoking increased risk most strongly for CRF classified as nephrosclerosis (OR among smokers with 20 packyears, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.8), but significant positive associations were also noted with glomerulonephritis. This study thus suggests that heavy cigarette smoking increases the risk of CRF for both men and women, at least CRF classified as nephrosclerosis and glomerulonephritis.