Publications : 2018

Huhmann M, Yamamoto S, Neutel J, Cohen SS, Gautier JO. 2018. Very high-protein and low-carbohydrate enteral nutrition formula and plasma glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized crossover trial. Nutr Diabetes 8(1):45.


Background and objectives

Standard enteral nutrition (EN) formulas can  worsen hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that altering the proportion of macronutrients in a formula; increasing protein while decreasing carbohydrate concentrations would improve glycemic response. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that an EN formula containing a very high concentration of protein (in the form of whey peptides) and low concentration of carbohydrate provide better control of postprandial blood glucose relative to a very high-protein/higher-carbohydrate formula.

Subjects and methods

This was a randomized crossover clinical trial of 12 ambulatory adult subjects with type 2 diabetes. The primary outcome was glycemic response following a bolus of isocaloric amounts of two EN formulas; the secondary outcome was insulin response. Subjects were randomized to the experimental or the control formula, on two separate days, 5–7 days apart.


Mean blood glucose concentrations at 10–180 min post-infusion and mean area under the curve for glucose over 240 min post-infusion were significantly lower with the experimental formula than with the control formula (71.99 ± 595.18 and 452.62 ± 351.38, respectively; p = 0.025). There were no significant differences in the mean insulin concentrations over time, insulinogenic indices, and first-phase insulin measurements.


An EN formula containing high-protein and low-carbohydrate loads can significantly improve glucose control in subjects with type 2 diabetes in ambulatory settings as evidenced by observed improved glucose control without significant difference in insulin response.